Michael Mascelli: Perfect in 1000 words or less

Thoughts on the Nature of Quality Workmanship

By Michael Mascelli

I have for nearly 40 years practiced the upholstery trade, and for most of it wrestled with the way we Americans use, and often overuse words like tradesman, craftsman, and professional.

As the level of what is considered acceptable craft work diminishes all around us, it seems to me all the more important to think about and discuss how we define and appreciate the value of work done by both hand and machine, and done well. Sadly, it is now common that professionals are well paid for doing sub-standard work, while devoted amateurs are often doing truly excellent work and thereby blurring the lines of what actually defines first rate work. So I would like to encourage a discussion of how standards are applied to both professional and amateur work by asking you to help answer the question my first and most cherished mentor asked me ask a young kid sweeping up in his auto body shop: “How smooth is smooth ?”

To achieve an excellent result with the old lacquer paints we used to sand to 600 grit; the modern woodworker might sand to 220 grit, and in the case of upholstery, smooth is in the eye (and seat) of the beholder. Of course there is no single standard, but there are five considerations that all craft workers face as they use their skills and tools to transform diverse materials into their finished products.


I deliberately reject the definition that one who charges a fee is somehow automatically a “professional”, and I do not believe that good tools make good work. I truly marvel at the precision possible with the vast array of new machines and tools available to virtually every trade, and yet cutting components with a CNC router to tolerances measured in thousandths of an inch does not mean that the resulting work is appropriate for all uses; neither is putting a second rate finish on a perfectly machined part. For me, the defining characteristic of professionalism, that is doing professional level work with both hand and machine tools, is judgement. The judgement to blend the right materials and techniques to best serve the needs of the piece and the client, within a reasonable time frame, and at a fair price. I believe strongly that judgement cannot be inherited or bestowed and must involve dedication and commitment over a long period of time, not to mention some busted knuckles and a dash of humility. I consider it critical for both professionals and amateurs to be able to look at their own sub-standard work, take a deep breath, rip it out and do it over. A joint is tight or it isn’t. A curve is fair or it’s not. A color matches or it doesn’t. Judgement defines smooth.


The execution of quality craft work involves a continuous series of decisions, great and small, that must be informed by a solid understanding of the options available. Knowing how your predecessors in past centuries made those choices is essential to making good ones. With the proliferation of free information, text, photos and videos on the internet, there is just no excuse for not studying your trade. At is very root, the word professional comes from the verb to “profess” which is the public declaration of a strongly held belief, and I feel that is incumbent upon craft workers to apply themselves to serious study of the history of their chosen work, as well as that of others, and to share it. Many furniture makers know and revere James Krenov, but the life’s work of English master upholsterer David James is no less deserving of study and respect. Standing on the shoulders of great workers provides an excellent vantage point for whatever work you are doing. Education informs smooth.

Craft Skill

Most craft work does not depend on virtuosity as much as it does on using solid basic skills confidently. I don’t think there is much room for debate in the area of craft skill, in order to do professional level work you need a solid mastery of the tools and techniques. As a longtime tool collector, I have a great appreciation of a well-made tool, well suited to its task, and yet I firmly believe it is possible to do excellent work with average tools. The mark of a professional is to the discipline to stop in the middle of the task and sharpen or adjust the tool that is performing poorly, rather than simply press on and live with a second rate result. Of course, the tool is but an extension of the hand, and similarly, there is no substitute for the repeated practice of the often complex and unique choreography of your work, such that the muscle memory is deeply ingrained and trusted. Practice is necessary to reach a level of perfection, though it alone is not a guarantee. For me, it is really about confidence; the trust that my mind can clearly envision the finished product, and my hands can reliably deliver it, steady and sure. Craft skill enables smooth.

Best Practices

There is certainly such a thing as the right tool for the job, and yet my many years at the bench and at the books have taught me that there are also many ways to achieve a given result. I am fond of saying that some of my best teachers have been old chairs, because they often allow me to see how several workers approached a similar challenge. I make a firm distinction between best practices and common practices, as the ceaseless drive for low cost work has driven down quality, which is all too often justified by saying that everyone else is doing it that way. A discussion of standards is really a discussion of integrity. My approach is simple: when the piece is in my shop, under my care, I treat is as if it were my own. Ultimately, I have to be accountable to the standards I have set based on the best work ever done in my trade, not necessarily the current best. Best practices measure smooth.


I have adopted the procedure of stopping to make a digital picture or two of each step in my process, just for my own records, and in addition, I keep detailed notes and project sheets.

Professionals should be able to recreate or repair a piece without having to reinvent the entire process, and the comfort of having good records later, far outweighs the burden of making them at the time. Here is a place in which modern technology can really be an asset. I argue that knowing you will take pictures even for your own use, keeps you on the straight and narrow path of solid work habits, and simple makes corners not worth cutting. Documentation ensures smooth.

Imaging trying to explain to Thomas Chippendale that we live in world in which talented amateur workers in home shops are doing better work that paid professionals, and there exists a means by which they can share their skills with the world at the click of a button. We really can change the way the busy modern people look at the work of skilled craft workers, and really should. Smooth begins at home.


9 Comments Add yours

  1. Bob Easton says:

    Mr. Mascelli’s question of “how smooth…” is a very appropriate way of measuring excellence.

    While I did not quite reach my own expectation, I recently completed a small lacquered box that I took all the way to 2000 grit. I’m an amateur and it was a “work of love.” It probably qualifies as smooth, but I know where the imperfections are.

    On the other hand, I think some things aren’t meant to be super smooth. Woodcarving is my stronger passion, and I hold the belief that the difference between well executed hand carved work and the output of a Chinese robot is smoothness; the absence of facets. My son one asked why I leave noticeable facets on my carvings, and I answered that they are signs of humanity, differentiating them from cheap CNC knock-offs.

    Thank you, Mr. Mascelli, for the thought provoking essay.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Goerge says:

    …rings very true!
    My favorite in the ‘1000 words or less’ series. Thanks for writing it down!


    1. Great stuff, fantastic read. I have always thought photography and woodworking went together hand in hand, but now I have an even better reason to keep my camera in the shop.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Matt Peterson says:

    “Professionals should be able to recreate or repair a piece without having to reinvent the entire process, and the comfort of having good records later, far outweighs the burden of making them at the time. “

    So true.

    I think that the difference between a craftsman and an artist is that the craftsman can make an item as many times as you want. The artists often create things that are more unique or beautiful but ask for a pair and you are out of luck.
    The difference between the professional and the craftsman is that the professional has seen or made enough mistakes to know when the wheels are spinning but they are not moving in the right direction.

    Thank you Michael. Great article.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Jared Tohlen says:

    Very interesting and provoking read! I am a professional graphic designer—I work off of learned principles and practices, make educated and informed design decisions, and complete projects in an appropriate time frame and manner. I’m certainly not the best, nor perfect, but I am professional. It’s quite obvious when folks, who are interested in design and fancy themselves “graphic designers,” aren’t professional because they don’t work from the necessary perspectives.

    All of that to say that, Michael definitely hit on something I believe translates to most areas of work and it’s very intriguing.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Michael Mascelli says:

    Thank you to the readers for the kind words…. I think that “smooth” is something we all wrestle with, no matter the trade, and I am very encouraged that there are a lot of passionate folks out there doing really high quality work in the traditional crafts. My goal is raise awareness that we need to honor and preserve these skills… by practicing them !!

    Mike Mascelli

    Liked by 1 person

  6. sharonque says:

    Humble and elegant words, this is perfectly put. Your paragraph on judgement reminded me of how I received an introduction to these lessons from my Grandma while cooking and sewing and now use the same lessons as a sculptor and violin restorer. Some years back working as an apprentice wood model maker the first task was to make a piece of wood perfectly flat by chalk fitting….a literal interpretation.

    Thank you Mike for this smooth inspiration.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. Well written Mike! Sometimes we are our own worst critics and sometimes it’s time or money that criticizes us. It’s up to us to stand fast and ensure we are putting forth our best and learn from the mistake of underestimating!


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